12.31.2099

AS - Accounting Standards in India

AS in india is used for Short form of Accounting Standard by all commerce or finance students and professionals.

In indian accounting blog everything is explained about AS in very short and meaningful way.

WHAT IS AS

Accounting standards are written , policy documents issued by expert accounting
body or by Government or other regulatory authorities covering the aspects of recognition, measurement, treatment, presentation and disclosure of accounting transaction in the financial statement.


The main purpose of formulating accounting standard is to standardize the diverse accounting policies with a view to eliminate to the extent possible the in-comparability of information provided in financial statements and add reliability to such financial statements.

To discuss on whether such standards are necessary in present days it will be beneficial to go through the advantages and disadvantages which they are said to provide.


APPLICABILITY OF AS

A three tier classification has been framed to ensure compliance of accounting standards for reporting enterprises.

Level I Enterprises:
  • Enterprises whose equity or debt securities are listed whether in India or outside India.
  • Enterprises which are in the process of listing their equity or debt securities as evidenced by the Board resolution in this regard.
  • Banks including co-operative banks
  • Financial institutions
  • Enterprises carrying insurance business
  • Enterprises whose turnover exceeds Rs.50 crores
  • Enterprises having borrowings in excess of Rs.10 crores at any time during the accounting period.
  • Holding companies and subsidiaries of enterprises falling under any one of the categories mentioned above.

Level II Enterprises:
  • Enterprises whose turnover exceeds Rs.40 lakhs but does not exceed Rs.50 crores.
  • Enterprises having borrowings in excess of Rs.1 crore but not in excess of Rs.10 crores at any time during the accounting period.
  • Holding companies and subsidiaries of enterprise falling under any one of the categories mentioned above.

Level III Enterprises:

Enterprises which are not covered under Level I and Level II.
Accounting Standard Applicability (Based on the three tier classification)


AS 3,17,18,24, Not applicable to Level II and Level III enterprises in
their entirety.
AS 19,20,29 All enterprises but relaxation given to Level I and Level II
enterprises for certain disclosure requirements.
AS 21,23,27 Not applicable to Level II and Level III enterprises
AS 25 Not mandatorily applicable to Level II and Level III
enterprises
AS 30,31,32 W.e.f. accounting periods commencing on or after 1-4-2009
and will be recommendatory in nature for an initial period
of two years.
It will be mandatory for on or after 1-4-2011 for all commercial, industrial and business entities except to a Small and Medium-sized Entity.

12.30.2099

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List of Accounting Standards

This is the complete list of 32 accounting standards mandatory in india .This list of accounting standards has been updated from ICAI website and link has been provided for which Notes or Summary of respective accounting standards available on Indian Accounting blog.
As we all know Accounting standards are written , policy documents issued by expert accounting body or by Government or other regulatory authorities covering the aspects of recognition, measurement, treatment, presentation and disclosure of accounting transaction in the financial statement.

The main purpose of formulating accounting standard is to standardize the diverse accounting policies with a view to eliminate to the extent possible the in-comparability of information provided in financial statements and add reliability to such financial statements. To discuss on whether such standards are necessary in present days it will be beneficial to go through the advantages and disadvantages which they are said to provide.

Few A.S have more than one summary or notes, like revenue Recognition and accounting standard 1, Link is given inside their respective Summary or Notes.
list of accounting standard

AS 18 Related Party Disclosures
AS 20 Earnings Per Share
AS 21 Consolidated Financial Statements
AS 23 Accounting for Investments in Associates
AS 25 Interim Financial Reporting
AS 26 Intangible Assets
AS 27 Financial Reporting of Interests in Joint Ventures
AS 28 Impairment of Assets

12.29.2099

Accounting Standard - 9 :REVENUE RECOGNITION Summary


Objective
A.S 9 deals with the basis for recognition of revenue in the statement of profit and loss of an enterprise.
The Accounting Standard is concerned with the recognition of revenue arising in the course of the ordinary activities of the enterprise from

  • The sale of goods,

  • The rendering of services, and

  • The use by others of enterprise resources yielding interest, royalties and dividends.

Applicability
This Accounting Standard does not deal with the following aspects of revenue recognition to which special considerations(i.e, separate standard has been issued to govern the same) apply:


  1. Revenue arising from construction contracts;

  1. Revenue arising from hire-purchase, lease agreements;

  1. Revenue arising from government grants and other similar subsidies;

  1. Revenue of insurance companies arising from insurance contracts.

Examples of items not included within the definition of “revenue” for the purpose of this Standard are:

  • Realised or unrealised gains resulting from non-current assets like appreciation in the value of fixed assets;

  • Unrealised holding gains resulting from the change in value of current assets, and the natural increases in agricultural and forest products;

  • Realised or unrealised gains from changes in foreign exchange rates and adjustments arising on the translation of foreign currency financial statements;

  • Realised gains resulting from the discharge of an obligation at less than its carrying amount;

  • Unrealized gains resulting from the restatement of the carrying amount of an obligation.

Read Practical Questions and Answers on AS-9

Revenue
Revenue is the gross inflow of cash, receivables or other consideration arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an enterprise from ;

  • the sale of goods,
  • the rendering of services, and
  • the use by others of enterprise resources yielding interest, royalties and dividends.

Recognition of Revenue
In general revenue from sale or service is to be recognized at the time of sale or rendering of service.
However, if at the time of rendering of service or at the time of sale there is significant
uncertainty in ultimate collection of the revenue, then the revenue recognition should be postponed to the date of collection.
And if the uncertainty arises subsequent to recognizing the revenue then separate provision is to be created to reflect the uncertainty rather than to adjust the amount of revenue originally recorded.

Recognition on sale of goods
Revenue is recognized on the fulfillment of following conditions:
  • The seller of goods has transferred to the buyer

  • The property in the goods for a price or

  • All significant risks and rewards of ownership and the seller retains no effective control of the goods.

  • No significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from the sale of the goods.

Recognition on rendering of services
Revenue recognition on rendering of services is measured by either of the two methods:
  • Completed service contract method

  • Proportionate completion method

Whichever relates the revenue to the work accomplished. Such performance should be regarded as being achieved when no significant uncertainty exists regarding the amount of the consideration that will be derived from rendering the service.

Read Accounting Standard 9 with Examples
Revenue arising from the use by others of enterprise resources yielding interest, royalties and dividends.
It should only be recognized when no significant uncertainty as to measurability or collectability exists. These revenues are recognized on the following basis:
  • Interest - on a time proportion basis taking into account the amount outstanding and the rate applicable.
  • Royalties - on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant agreement.
  • Dividends - when the owner’s right to receive is established

Disclosures
In addition to the disclosures required by AS 1 on ‘Disclosure of AccountingPolicies’, an enterprise should also disclose the circumstances in which revenue recognition has been postponed because of significant uncertainties.
Also Read Notes on :



12.28.2099

Accounting Standard – 13 ACCOUNTING FOR INVESTMENTS

Applicability of AS 13

This Statement does not deal with:
  • The bases for recognition of interest, dividends and rentals earned on investments which are covered by Accounting Standard 9.
  • Operating or finance leases covered by Accounting Standard 19.
  • Investments of retirement benefit plans and life insurance enterprises covered by Accounting Standard 15
  • Mutual funds and/or the related asset management companies, banks and public.
  • Financial institutions formed under a Central or State Government Act or so declared under the Companies Act, 2013.



Definitions under AS 13
Investments are assets held by an enterprise for earning income by way of dividends, interest, and rentals, for capital appreciation, or for other benefits to the investing enterprise. Assets held as stock-in-trade are not ‘investments’.

Current investment is an investment that is by its nature readily realizable and is intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made.

Long term investment is an investment other than a current investment.

Fair value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between a knowledgeable, willing buyer and a knowledgeable, willing seller in an arm’s length transaction. Under appropriate circumstances, market value or net realizable value provides an evidence of fair value.

Market value is the amount obtainable from the sale of an investment in an open market, net of expenses necessarily to be incurred on or before disposal.

Current Investments
  • A current Investment is an investment that is by its nature readily realizable and is intended to be held for not more than one year from the date on which such investment is made.
  • The carrying amount for current investments is the lower of cost and fair value.
  • Fair Value is the amount for which an asset could be exchanged between a knowledgeable, willing buyer and a knowledgeable, willing seller in an arm’s length transaction. Under appropriate circumstances, market value or net realisable value provides an evidence of fair value.
  • Market Value is the amount obtainable from the sale of an investment in an open market, net of expenses necessarily to be incurred on or before disposal.
  • Any reduction to fair value and any reversals of such reductions are included in the statement of profit and loss.

Long Term Investments
  • A long-term investment is an investment other than a current investment.
  • Long term investments are usually carried at cost.
  • If there is a permanent decline in the value of a long term investment; the carrying amount is reduced to recognize the decline.
  • The reduction in carrying amount is charged to the statement of profit and loss.
  • The reduction in carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment, or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.

Cost of Investments
  • Broker, fees and duties - The cost of an investment includes acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties.

  • Non-cash consideration-If an investment is acquired, or partly acquired, by the issue of shares or other securities or another asset, the acquisition cost is the fair value of the securities issued or assets given up. The fair value may not necessarily be equal to the nominal or par value of the securities issued. It may be appropriate to consider the fair value of the investment acquired if it is more clearly evident.

  • Interest, dividend etc - Interest, dividends and other receivables in connection with an investment are generally regarded as income, being the return on the investment. However, in some circumstances, such inflows represent a recovery of cost and do not form part of income. If it is difficult to make such an allocation, the cost of investment is normally reduced by dividends receivable only if they clearly represent a recovery of a part of the cost.

  • Right Shares - When right shares offered are subscribed for, the cost of the right shares is added to the carrying amount of the original holding. If rights are not subscribed for but are sold in the market, the sale proceeds are taken to the profit and loss statement. However, where the investments are acquired on cum-right basis and the market value of investments immediately after their becoming ex-right is lower than the cost for which they were acquired, it may be appropriate to apply the sale proceeds of rights to reduce the carrying amount of such investments to the market value.

Carrying Amount of Investments

With respect to Current Investments
The more prudent and appropriate method is to carrying current investments individually at the lower of
  • Cost and
  • Fair value
Any reduction to fair value and any reversals of such reductions are included in the Profit & Loss Statement.

With respect to Long-term Investments
Long-term investments are usually carried at cost. They are carried at a lower cost when there is a decline, other than temporary in nature. The resultant reduction in the carrying amount is charged to the profit and loss statement. The reduction in carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment, or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.

Disposal of Investments
On disposal of an investment, the difference between the carrying amount and the disposal
proceeds, net of expenses, is recognized in the profit and loss statement.

Reclassification of Investments
Where long-term investments are reclassified as current investments, transfers are made at the lower of cost and carrying amount at the date of transfer.

Where investments are reclassified from current to long-term, transfers are made at the lower of cost and fair value at the date of transfer.

Disclosure
The following disclosures are to be made in financial statements in relation to investments:
  • The accounting policies applied to determine carrying amount of investments.
  • The amounts included in profit and loss statement for:
    • Interest, dividends (showing separately dividends from subsidiary companies)
    • Rentals on investments (showing separately such income from long term and current investments)
    • Amount of income tax deducted at source being included under Advance Taxes Paid.
    • Profits and losses on disposal of current investments and changes in carrying amount of such investments.
    • Profits and losses on disposal of long term investments and changes in the carrying amount of such investments.
  • Significant restrictions on the right of ownership, realisability of investments or the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal.
  • The aggregate amount of quoted and unquoted investments, giving the aggregate market value of quoted investments.
  • Other disclosures as specifically required by the relevant statute governing the enterprise.

Accounting Standard -10 Property, Plant and Equipment (Revised)

This is revised accounting standard 10  Property,Plant and Equipment(PPE),which has replaced AS 6 Depreciation and AS 10 Accounting for fixed assets. This revision of AS 10 has been made to be as par with IndAS and IFRS. 

 Accounting Standard 10 : Property, Plant And Equipment.


1.Property, plant and equipment are tangible
  items that:
  • Are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative purposes; and
  • Are expected to be used during more than a period of twelve months.

    *Bearer plant is a plant that
    • Is used in the production or supply of agricultural produce;
    • Is expected to bear produce for more than a period of twelve months; and
    • Has a remote likelihood of being sold as agricultural produce, except for incidental scrap sales.

* Biological Asset is a living animal or plant.
*Agricultural Produce is the harvested product of biological assets of the enterprise.


2. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment should be recognized as an asset if, and only if:
  • It is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the enterprise; and
  • The cost of the item can be measured reliably.

3. Items such as spare parts, stand-by equipment and servicing equipment are recognized in accordance with this Standard when they meet the definition of property, plant and equipment. Otherwise, such items are classified as inventory.

4. This Standard does not prescribe the unit of measure for recognition, i.e., what constitutes an item of property, plant and equipment.Thus, judgment is required in applying the recognition criteria to specific circumstances of an enterprise. An example of a ‘unit of measure’ can be a ‘project’ of construction of a manufacturing plant rather than individual assets comprising the project in appropriate cases for the purpose of capitalization of expenditure incurred during construction period. Similarly, it may be appropriate to aggregate individually insignificant items, such as moulds, tools and dies and to apply the criteria to the aggregate value. An enterprise may decide to expense an item which could otherwise have been included as property, plant and equipment, because the amount of the expenditure is not material.

5. An enterprise evaluates under this recognition principle all its costs on property, plant and equipment at the time they are incurred. These costs include costs incurred:
  • Initially to acquire or construct an item of property, plant and equipment; and
  • Subsequently to add to, replace part of, or service it.



Initial Costs
The acquisition of property, plant and equipment which does not, directly increases the future economic benefits but may be necessary for an enterprise to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets. Such items of property, plant and equipment qualify for recognition as assets because they enable an enterprise to derive future economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired.
For example, a chemical manufacturer may install new chemical handling processes to comply with environmental requirements for the production and storage of dangerous chemicals; related plant enhancements are recognized as an asset because without them the enterprise is unable to manufacture and sell chemicals.

Subsequent Costs
Repairs and Maintenance
An enterprise does not recognize in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the costs of the day-to-day servicing of the item. Rather, these costs are recognized in the statement of profit and loss as incurred.
Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the costs of labor and consumables, and may include the cost of small parts.
The purpose of such expenditures is often described as for the ‘repairs and maintenance’ of the item of property, plant and equipment.

Replacements
Parts of some items of property, plant and equipment may require replacement at regular intervals.
For example, an aircraft interiors such as seats and galleys may require replacement several times during the life of the aircraft.
An enterprise recognizes in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the cost of replacing part of such an item when that cost is incurred if the recognition criteria are met. The carrying amount of those parts that are replaced is derecognized.

Inspection
A condition of continuing to operate an item of property, plant and equipment (for example, an aircraft) may be performing regular major inspections for faults regardless of whether parts of the item are replaced.
When each major inspection is performed, its cost is recognized in the carrying amount of the item of property, plant and equipment as a replacement if the recognition criteria are satisfied.
Any remaining carrying amount of the cost of the previous inspection is derecognized.

Measurement at Recognition

6. An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset should be measured at its cost.

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:
  • It's purchase price, including import duties and non –refundable purchase taxes,, after deducting trade discounts and rebate .
  • Any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
  • The initial estimate of the costs of dismantling, removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, referred to as ‘decommissioning, restoration and similar liabilities’, the obligation for which an enterprise incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

The amount recognized as provision should be the best estimates of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date. The discount rate should be a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessment of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability.

7. Recognition of costs in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment ceases when the item is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
Therefore the following costs are not included in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment:
  • Costs incurred while an item capable of operating in the manner intended by management has yet to be brought into use or is operated at less than full capacity;
  • Initial operating losses, such as those incurred while demand for the output of an item builds up; and
  • Costs of relocating or reorganizing part or all of the operations of an enterprise.

8. Some operations occur in connection with the construction or development of an item of property, plant and equipment, but are not necessary to bring the item to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
These incidental operations may occur before or during the construction or development activities.

For example, income may be earned through using a building site as a car park until construction starts. Because incidental operations are not necessary to bring an item to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management, the income and related expenses of incidental operations are recognized in the statement of profit and loss and included in their respective classifications of income and expense.

9. The cost of a self-constructed asset is determined using the same principles as for an acquired asset.
If an enterprise makes similar assets for sale in the normal course of business, the cost of the asset is usually the same as the cost of constructing an asset for sale (see AS 2).
Therefore, any internal profits are eliminated in arriving at such costs. Similarly, the cost of abnormal amounts of wasted material,labor, or other resources incurred in self-constructing an asset is not included in the cost of the asset.
AS 16, Borrowing Costs, establishes criteria for the recognition of interest as a component of the carrying amount of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment.

10. Bearer plants are accounted for in the same way as self-constructed items of property, plant and equipment before they are in the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Consequently, references to ‘construction’ in this Standard should be read as covering activities that are necessary to cultivate the bearer plants before they are in the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.

Measurement of Cost
11. The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is the cash price equivalent at the recognition date. If payment is deferred beyond normal credit terms, the difference between the cash price equivalent and the total payment is recognized as interest over the period of credit unless such interest is capitalized in accordance with AS 16.

12. The cost of an item acquired in exchange of another asset of property, plant and equipment is measured at fair value. If the acquired item(s) is/are not measured at fair value, Its /their cost is measured at the carrying amount of the asset(s) given up.

13. Where several items of property, plant and equipment are purchased for a consolidated price, the consideration is apportioned to the various items on the basis of their respective fair values at the date of acquisition. In case the fair values of the items acquired cannot be measured reliably, these values are estimated on a fair basis as determined by competent valuer.

Measurement after Recognition
14. An enterprise should choose either the cost model or the revaluation model as its accounting policy and should apply that policy to an entire class of property, plant and equipment.

Cost Model
15. After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment should be carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Revaluation Model
16. After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment whose fair value can be measured reliably should be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent accumulated impairment losses.
Revaluations should be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the balance sheet date.

17. The fair value of items of property, plant and equipment is usually determined from market-based evidence by appraisal that is normally undertaken by professionally qualified valuers. If there is no market-based evidence of fair value, an enterprise may need to estimate fair value using an income approach (for example, based on discounted cash flow projections) or a depreciated replacement cost approach.

18. The frequency of revaluations depends upon the changes in fair values of the items of property, plant and equipment being revalued. Some items of property, plant and equipment experience significant and volatile changes in fair value, thus necessitating annual revaluation.
Such frequent revaluations are unnecessary for items of property, plant and equipment with only insignificant changes in fair value. Instead, it may be necessary to revalue the item only every three or five years.

19. When an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, the carrying amount of that asset is adjusted to their valued amount. At the date of the revaluation, the asset is treated in one of the following ways:
  • The gross carrying amount is restated proportionately to the change in the carrying amount. The accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is adjusted to equal the difference between the gross carrying amount and the carrying amount of the asset after taking into account accumulated impairment losses; or
  • The accumulated depreciation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset.

20. If an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, the entire class of property, plant and equipment to which that asset belongs should be revalued.
A class of property, plant and equipment is a grouping of assets of a similar nature and use in operations of an enterprise. The following are examples of separate classes:
  • land;
  • land and buildings;
  • machinery;
  • ships;
  • aircraft;
  • motor vehicles;
  • furniture and fixtures;
  • office equipment; and
  • bearer plants.



21. An increase in the carrying amount of an asset arising on revaluation should be credited directly to owners ’interests under the heading of revaluation surplus However, the increase should be recognized in the statement of profit and loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognized in the statement of profit and loss.

22. A decrease in the carrying amount of an asset arising on revaluation should be charged to the statement of profit and loss. However, the decrease should be debited directly to owners’ interests under the heading of revaluation surplus to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset.

23. The revaluation surplus included in owners’ interests in respect of an item of property, plant and equipment may be transferred to the revenue reserves when the asset is derecognized. This may involve transferring the whole of the surplus when the asset is retired or disposed of. However, some of the surplus may be transferred as the asset is used by an enterprise. In such a case, the amount of the surplus transferred would be the difference between depreciation based on the revalued carrying amount of the asset and depreciation based on its original cost. Transfers from revaluation surplus to the revenue reserves are not made through the statement of profit and loss.

Depreciation
24. Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item should be depreciated separately.


25. An enterprise allocates the amount initially recognized in respect of an item of property, plant and equipment to its significant parts and depreciates each such part separately. For example, it may be appropriate to depreciate separately the airframe and engines of an aircraft, whether owned or subject to a finance lease. This is popularly called component accounting.

A significant part of an item of property, plant and equipment may have a useful life and a depreciation method that are the same as the useful life and the depreciation method of another significant part of that same item. Such parts may be grouped in determining the depreciation charge.

The remainder consists of the parts of the item that are individually not significant. If an enterprise has varying expectations for these parts, approximation techniques may be necessary to depreciate the remainder in a manner that faithfully represents the consumption pattern and/or useful life of its parts.


26. Charge for each period should be recognized in the statement of profit and loss unless it is included in the carrying amount of another asset.

Depreciable Amount and Depreciation Period
27. The depreciable amount of an asset should be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life.


28. The residual value and the useful life of an asset should be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) should be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with Accounting Standard 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies.


29. Depreciation is recognized even if the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying amount, as long as the asset’s residual value does not exceed its carrying amount. Repair and maintenance of an asset do not negate the need to depreciate it. The depreciable amount of an asset is determined after deducting its residual value. The residual value of an asset may increase to an amount equal to or greater than its carrying amount. If it does, depreciation charge of the asset is zero unless and until its residual value subsequently decreases to an amount below its carrying amount.


30. Depreciation of an asset begins when it is available for use, i.e., when it is in the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Depreciation of an asset ceases at the earlier of the date that the asset is retired from active use and is held for disposal and the date that the asset is derecognized.
Therefore, depreciation does not cease when the asset becomes idle or is retired from active use (but not held for disposal) unless the asset is fully depreciated. However, under usage methods of depreciation, the depreciation charge can be zero while there is no production.


31. All the following factors are considered in determining the useful life of an asset:
  • expected usage of the asset.
  • expected physical wear and tear,
  • technical or commercial obsolescence,
  • legal or similar limits on the use of the asset, such as the expiry dates of related leases.

32. The useful life of an asset is defined in terms of its expected utility to the enterprise. The asset management policy of the enterprise may involve the disposal of assets after a specified time or after consumption of a specified proportion of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset. Therefore, the useful life of an asset may be shorter than its economic life. The estimation of the useful life of the asset is a matter of judgment based on the experience of the enterprise with similar assets.


33. Land and buildings are separable assets and are accounted for separately, even when they are acquired together. With some exceptions, such as quarries and sites used for landfill, land has an unlimited useful life and therefore is not depreciated. Buildings have a limited useful life and therefore are depreciable assets. An increase in the value of the land on which a building stands does not affect the determination of the depreciable amount of the building.

If the cost of land includes the costs of site dismantlement, removal and restoration, that portion of the land asset is depreciated over the period of benefits obtained by incurring those costs. In some cases, the land itself may have a limited useful life, in which case it is depreciated in a manner that reflects the benefits to be derived from it.

Depreciation Method
34. The depreciation method used should reflect the pattern in which the future economic benefits of the asset are expected to be consumed by the enterprise.


35. The depreciation method applied to an asset should be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the method should be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such a change should be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with AS 5.

Changes in Existing Decommissioning, Restoration and Other Liabilities


36. The cost of property, plant and equipment may undergo changes subsequent to its acquisition or construction on account of changes in liabilities, price adjustments, changes in duties, changes in initial estimates of amounts provided for dismantling, removing, restoration and similar factors and included in the cost of the asset.


37. If the related asset is measured using the cost model:
changes in the liability should be added to, or deducted from, the cost of the related asset in the current period. However the amount deducted from the cost of the asset should not exceed its carrying amount. If a decrease in the liability exceeds the carrying amount of the asset, the excess should be recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.


38. If the related asset is measured using the revaluation model:
a decrease in the liability should be credited directly to revaluation surplus and an increase in the liability should be recognized in the statement of profit and loss.


39. The adjusted depreciable amount of the asset is depreciated over its useful life. Therefore, once the related asset has reached the end of its useful life, all subsequent changes in the liability should be recognized in the statement of profit and loss as they occur. This applies under both the cost model and the revaluation model.

Retirements
40. Items of property, plant and equipment retired from active use and held for disposal should be stated at the lower of their carrying amount and net realizable value. Any write-down in this regard should be recognized immediately in the statement of profit and loss.

De-recognition
41. The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment should be derecognized
  • on disposal; or
  • when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

The gain or loss arising from the de recognition of an item of property, plant and equipment should be included in the statement of profit and loss when the item is derecognized. Gains should not be classified as revenue, as defined in Accounting Standard 9, Revenue Recognition.


Also Read Notes on :